RBEI MASTER COURSES: EQUINE MANAGEMENT: FEEDING 6
FEEDS COMMONLY FED TO HORSES:
Here are eight foods you should avoid feeding your horse:
1. CHOCOLATE: Like dogs, horses are also sensitive to the chemical, theobromine, in chocolate. Large amounts of cocoa can actually kill a horse.
2. PERSIMMONS: The fibers and seeds of this fruit can cause a sticky mass known as a phytobezoar, which can become lodged within the gastrointestinal system, leading to colic. While persimmons might not be something you consider feeding to your horses, if you have persimmon trees in your pasture, they will gladly eat up the ripened fruits that fall to the ground. It’s best to remove these trees from your pastures.
3. AVOCADO: The avocado, itself, isn’t toxic to horses, but the skin, pit, and leaves of the plant are. It’s not worth the risk
4. LAWN CLIPPINGS: Lawn clippings consist of cut grass, so many people think they are safe to feed to horses but mower fumes in the grass can cause colic. Slasher cut grass if fine, just mower clippings aren't.
5. PITTED FRUITS: Feeding fruits with the pit in them is a choke hazard. And if you’ve ever dealt with choke you know it is definitely not fun and can even lead to serious complications. Some pitted fruits (such as apricots, cherries or dates) are fine to feed, so long as you remove the pit first.
6. BREAD: Once ingested, bread and other baked goods can become a doughy wad that can possibly cause a blockage in the gastrointestinal system and lead to colic, they are also wheat based which is not good for horses as much as they love it.
7. POTATOES & OTHER NIGHTSHADES: Potatoes are a nightshade vegetable. Horses don’t typically like the taste of nightshades, but they might be tempted to eat the stems and leaves of these plants—the most toxic parts—if they have access to them in the pasture. Nightshades contain a compound called atropine, which can affect the autonomic nervous system. Symptoms of atropine toxicity vary, but the most serious are convulsions and /or death.
8. YOGHURT & OTHER MILK PRODUCTS: Adult horses cannot digest lactose, which is present in all dairy products. While yogurt has its benefits for people, it will likely give your horse diarrhoea.
GRAINS & FEEDS COMMONLY FED TO HORSES:
BLACK SUNFLOWER SEEDS
FRENCH WHITE MILLET
SOY BEAN MEAL
SUGAR BEET PULP
SOY BEAN MEAL
APPLE CIDER VINEGAR
WHEAT, not recommended
There have been many incidents of extreme colic, founder and death in horses caused by wheat. To be avoided.
MOLASSES (DRIED & LIQUID): Molasses is a popular component of mixed concentrate rations. It is a by-product of the sugar refining industry. Horses like the flavor. It is a cheap source of energy, and it reduces dust in the feed. Generally molasses should not exceed 10 to 12 percent of ration. Five percent is the most common amount added to a ration. Excessive amounts of molasses make the feed sticky and difficult to handle and can cause the feed to turn rancid.
NOT RECOMMENDED BUT COMMONLY FED:
The concentrate portion of the ration contains grains that are higher in energy and lower in fibre than roughages. Many grains are fed to horses. The most common are oats, barley, and corn.
OATS: Oats are the most popular and safest grain to feed to horses. What makes oats a safe feed is the fiber content--about 13 percent. This means oats have more bulk per nutrient content, and horses have to eat more to satisfy their nutrient requirements. Bulk makes it more difficult for the horse to overeat and get colic or founder.
Kernels should be plump, heavy, and clean and have a bright color, clean smell, and a low ratio of husks to kernels. The heavier the oats, the more nutrient contained per unit of weight. U.S. No. 1 oats weigh 36 lb (16.3 kg) per bushel, whereas U.S. No. 4 oats weigh about 27 lb (12.2 kg) per bushel. Oats should be bought according to the least cost per unit of energy, provided they are clean and stored properly. Clean oats are important. Oats should be cleaned to remove dirt, weeds, other seeds, and broken kernels. Dust in oats indicates that the oats are old and may be of lesser quality. You can check to see if your oats are dusty by pouring them into a can and back into the sack. A musty smell indicates that the oats have been stored with too much moisture and will spoil. Oats should not have a sour or bitter taste.
Oats can be fed whole or processed. Processing includes crimping, rolling, or crushing the kernel. Whole oats are easily eaten and digested by the horse. If oats are processed, a slight crimp is sufficient. When the kernel coat is broken by processing, less chewing is required, and digestive juices have better access to the kernel.
BARLEY: Barley is very similar to oats as a feed except for some characteristics that affect how it is used. Barley is lower in fiber than oats and is classified as a "heavy" feed. Barley is more energy dense and weighs more per unit of volume (48 pounds per bushel, or 22 kg) than oats. The barley kernel is harder than the oat kernel, so it is usually rolled before feeding.
CORN: Corn is one of the most energy-dense feeds and contains a high content of carbohydrate. Corn has a high energy content per unit of weight and a high weight per unit volume. Therefore, a given volume of corn contains approximately three times the amount of energy as an equal volume of oats. Corn's high energy content has led to it becoming known as "too hot" a feed for horses. However, if the horse is fed to meet its energy requirement, corn is an excellent feed.
Corn quality is judged by the moisture content and percentage of well-formed kernels. Very few damaged kernels should be present. In addition, kernels should be plump, firm, and separated. There should be no insect or mold damage. Moisture content should be less than 14 percent. The kernel is high in starch and readily fermentable; therefore, it can become toxic.
Corn can be fed in the following forms:
On the cob - This form can be used as a management tool for horses that bolt (eat too fast) their grain. However, older horses or horses with bad teeth have difficulty eating whole corn. Whole corn will keep longer than shelled corn, but it is more costly to store.
Shelled whole corn - Some whole-corn kernels will pass through the digestive tract without being digested. Therefore, it is advisable to process the kernels in some way to increase digestion.
Cracked corn - Cracking the corn kernel may be preferred because it allows digestive juices to enter the corn and increase digestibility.
Steamed rolled corn - Steam rolling further processes the corn kernel, creating more surface area for digestive juices and increasing digestibility.
Ground or crushed corn - This type of processing makes the corn kernel too small. If the corn passes through the small intestines too rapidly, it can lead to fermentation in the hind gut. This may lead to colic if the horse is being feed a high-concentrate diet. Whole-ear ground corn can be fed to horses because the cob is high in fiber and low in energy.
BEET PULP: Beet pulp can be dehydrated and used as a source of fiber and energy. It is relatively high in energy and calcium but low in protein, phosphorus, and B vitamins. It contains no carotene or vitamin D. Beet pulp is included in many high-performance diets to help ensure adequate fiber intake while meeting energy needs has been the cause though of many choking incidents however.
SOYBEANS & SOYBEAN MEAL: Whole, roasted soybeans and soybean meal are both used as a protein supplement to increase the protein content of a concentrate mix. Whole, roasted soybeans are not as commonly fed to horses as soybean meal. The two common types of soybean meal are differentiated based on their protein content (44 percent or 48 percent). The 48 percent protein soybean meal is prepared by removing the hulls, which makes a product relatively richer in protein content. The hulls contain mostly fiber and very little protein.
WHEAT NOT RECOMMENDED:
Not recommendedThere have been many incidents of extreme colic, founder and death in horses caused by wheat. To be avoided.
HAYS COMMONLY FED:
MEADOW HAY / PLAIN GRASS HAY
SUGAR BEET HAY / MULCH
WHEAT HAY, (NOT RECOMMENDED, wheat products and wheat hay while commonplace, are not safe to feed to horses).
There are three types of hay, namely cereal, legume and pasture.
Legume hay included Lucerne, peas and beans. Cereal hay includes oaten and wheaten hay. Pasture hay consists of various grasses/legume mixtures. Green fodders include oats, wheat and barley in the growing stage, and pasture grasses.
Cereal and Legume
These are specially grown. Oats and Lucerne can be grown in rotation with other crops, or left as a permanent pasture. Fertilizer should be added to the paddock to ensure growing grass receives adequate nutrition. It is often necessary to irrigate pasture to allow the grass to grow to its maximum. Oaten and lucerne hays are the most expensive hay because of the costs involved in making them.
This is hay made from the pasture (not planted) grown naturally in the field. It consists of a mixture of grasses and herbs. Some, but not all of the species will be nutritious, depending on the soils on which the hay grows and the rainfall it receives, and the stage of growth.
Lucerne hay is fed to horses in hard work, because of its higher protein level. Some horses do well on pasture but the majority find cultivated hay more palatable.
All hay should have as few weeds as possible, although pasture will have more weed than oaten or lucerne hay.
To produce the finest possible quality of hay, the crop should be cut when 1/10 to 1/6 of crop is in flower. This will happen before seeding. With a crop that is made up of several grasses, cutting should be done when the majority of grasses have just flowered. In mild or warm climates it is often possible to cut a second crop. The first cut is usually at the late spring or early summer, and a second crop being cut in late summer or early autumn. Once the seed has formed, the stem becomes woody and less nutritious than before. Growers will sometimes cut late so that their pasture benefits from well formed seed falling on to it. When buying hay, ask for the first cut as it will have more protein.
The process of drying, carrying and stacking hay is called "saving". Well cured hay has been rapidly dried without being rained on and is, therefore, of superior feeding value. Rain dissolves the nutrients out of the hay stalks, and encourages the growth of mould. Meadow hay is easier to save than oaten or lucerne hay which have a large proportion of heavy, succulent herbage. After cutting, the grass loses three quarters of its weight by evaporation. The cut stalks are left to dry on the land. They are turned regularly to encourage evaporation. The heat of the sunshine acts on the starch in the hay so that it slowly changes to sugar. Once the hay is dry enough it is baled.
The amount of heat allowed to develop must be carefully controlled. Too much heat produces acetic acid, which makes the hay unpalatable and sour. It causes bales to turn black. If bales are stacked closely together in a shed at this stage, there is a danger that heat will build up so much that a fire will begin.
Once the bales have finished this stage, they should be carefully stored so that they are protected from rain and sunshine. The best place is a well aired barn, or hay shed as it provides shade and shelter.
HERBS COMMONLY USED FOR HORSES:
AGNUS CASTUS (Chasteberry, Monks Pepper)
Actions: Anaphrodisiac, hormonal system normaliser
Chaste Berry has been in use for centuries for balancing and regulating the hormonal system. It gently, but effectively, supports the normal functioning of the pituitary gland, correcting hormonal disturbances. Supporting the progesterone level is extremely helpful in counteracting the irritability and unpredictability that can happen with mares “in season,” making them more comfortable, co-operative and safer to handle. Agnus Castus can also be used for overly aggressive stallions and geldings. Agnus castus may benefit mares who are experiencing mood changes, anxiety, nervous tension, and physical discomfort related to oestrous cycle. While the jury is still out of the efficacy of herbal treatments for Cushing’s syndrome, there is indication that chaste berry (Vitex agnus castus) may be effective for early stage cases of Cushing’s syndrome.
ARNICA (Wolbane, Leopards Bane, Mountain Daisy)
Actions: Anti inflammatory
Herbal arnica is used topically to relieve the pain and inflammation of soft-tissue injuries such as bruises, muscle soreness and sprains. It helps to prevent bruising and swelling after traumatic skin injuries and prevents the blood platelets from gathering to the site of injury. It is particularly useful for joint, muscle and rheumatic pain and it has also been found to prevent muscle stiffness and reduce pain when applied before and after athletic events. The tincture or topical preparations containing arnica can be used externally but should be avoided on broken skin.
Bee pollen contains a rich array of carotenoids, the family of natural plant antioxidants that includes beta carotene. Many horse owners report increased vitality, better overall health, from adding bee pollen to the feed.Bee pollen is often referred to as nature’s most complete food.Bee pollen contains trace amounts of minerals and vitamins and is very high in protein and carbohydrates. Bee Pollen also contains elements science is not yet able to isolate and identify. Some authorities believe it is precisely these elements, often called the *magic* of the bee, which makes Bee Pollen so effective.
Actions: Stimulant, Tonic, Diaphoretic, Emetic, Aperient, Antispasmodic, Cathartic, and Febrifuge.
European studies show this herb helps treat minor viral and bacterial infections by stimulating white blood cells to destroy disease-causing microorganisms more effectively. In Germany, where herbal medicine is more main-stream than it is in the United States, physicians currently use boneset to treat viral infections, such as colds and flu. For mucous congestion and bone pain.
BLACK SUNFLOWER SEEDS
High-protein food, with more protein than the grains. Rich in minerals; iron and zinc are plentiful. The high amount of oil in sunflower seeds as polyunsaturated fats, essential linoleic acid, and vitamin E. They are about 25 percent protein, have a good fibre content, and are rich in the B vitamins also, particularly in thiamine, pyridoxine, niacin, and pantothenic acid. With their high potassium and low sodium and with zinc, iron, and calcium all at good levels, sunflower seeds are a very mineral-rich food. The vitamin D that gets stored in these sun-filled seeds helps the utilisation of calcium. Copper, manganese, and phosphorus levels are also relatively high; they are lower in magnesium than in calcium, which is different from other seeds.
Actions: anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, demulcent, diuretic, nutritive, tonic, vasodilator, antihistamine
A rich source of calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron and trace elements.Buckwheat, being a rich source of iron, makes it a valuable blood builder.
Buckwheat is useful in cases of arthritis, epitaxsis, navicular syndrome, or any condition which could benefit from an improved blood supply.
Rutin, a consitiuent of Buckwheat, is valued for its ability to strengthen the walls of capillaries. Lecithin is another extremely beneficial component of buckwheat. Lecithin also helps the body to neutralise excess toxins, cleanse the lymphatics and lower high cholesterol. It also works with vitamin K, to increase the strength of the capillaries and regulate cell permeability.
Actions: Bitters, alterative, diuretic, antiseptic
For any blood disorders especially LIVER and KIDNEY function. It is reputed to have ANTI-TUMOUR properties. Also used for ARTHRITIC/RHEUMATIC conditions.
Being a bitters, makes this herb an excellent digestive aid. Ideal for blood disorders or toxic conditions which may result in conditions such as eczema, sores, scurfy skin.
Actions: astringent, anti-inflammatory,vulnerary, antiseptic, antifungal, emmenagogue
An ANTI-INFLAMMATORY as well as ANTI-FUNGAL/BACTERIA properties. Tradionally used as a BLOOD TONIC good for CIRCULATION problems. Very high in sulphur so will aid all SKIN PROBLEMS used internally or externally. Use with cleavers for the LYMPHATIC and URINARY SYSTEM. Internally it acts as a valuable herb for digestive inflammation and thus it may be used in the treatment of gastric ulcers
CAPSICUM FRUIT (Cayenne)
Actions: Stimulant, carminative, anti-catarrhal, sialagogue, rubefacient, anti-microbial.
Cayenne is the most useful of the systemic stimulants. It stimulates blood flow, strengthening the heart, arteries, capillaries and nerves. A general tonic, it is also specific for both circulatory and digestive system. Cayenne increases the power of all other herbs.
Actions: Antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory, carminative, diuretic, tonic
A very good DIGESTIVE tonic especially if the horse is run down with little appetite. Improves blood circulation helping to reduce blood pressure especially for ARTHRITIC/RHEUMATIC, NAVICULAR SYNDROME. Used as a urinary antiseptic. This herb has a warming effect which makes it particularly useful for chilled or older horses.
Actions: Sedative, caminative, anti-inflammatory, relaxant,bitters, vasodilatory, analgesic, antispasmodic
High in calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, potassium and manganese. An anti-inflammatory aids DIGESTION especially of nervous hyperactive horses. Chamomile s a well known and effective CALMATIVE without making the horse dozy. Eases cases of tension, anxiety and stress. Use for aches and pains.
Actions: Diuretic, astringent, aperient, tonic, alterative
Very high in silica helping to strengthen and condition the HOOF and COAT. Reduces SOFT SWELLINGS and FLUID RETENTION (wind galls and filled legs). Mix with calendular for the best support of the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Actions: Anti-inflammatory, vulnerary, pulmonary, expectorant, demulcent Has a remarkable ability to heal BONE, CARTILAGE and SOFT CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It breaks down red blood cells to help heal BRUISING. Also ideal for inflammation of STOMACH LINING (use for ulcers and colitis) as well as RESPIRATORY conditions as it has a pulmonary action. Good for ARTHRITIC/RHEUMATIC conditions. Comfrey is a rich source of vitamin B12. Externally comfrey is recommeneded for bruised muscles, ligaments, shin soreness and joint pain and inflammation.
Actions: diuretic, aperient, antibiotic, demulcent
Use as a spring tonic. Relieves URINARY problems such as cystitis and kidney stones. A rich source of silica helping to strenghten coat and hooves. Contains iron, vitamin B and A.
Actions: tonic, diuretic, antirheumatic, hepatic
A natural electrolye, the herb and root contains rich amounts of potassium, magnesium, calcium, and vitamins A, B, C, and D. Dandelion is a good blood cleanser making it an ideal herb for rheumatism. An excellent diuretic.
Actions: anti-inflammatory, analgesic, sedative, antirheumatic, digestive stimulant
Devil’s Claw, also known as “Nature’s Bute”, is well known for its ability to provide fast, powerful and reliable pain relief as well as anti-inflammatory and anti-spasmodic benefits. Its action is said to be comparable to cortisone and phenylbutazone. Devil’s Claw has been used to treat cases of arthritis, tendon and ligament damage, navicular and joint injury, where pain and inflammation need to be alleviated. It also has the ability to cleanse deep into tissue and muscle walls, and it supports liver function.
Actions: antiviral, anibacterial, immuno-stimulant, vulnerary, anti-inflammatory
World’s best known herb to aid body’s natural defenses. Use for chronic viral or bacterial infections. Effective immuno-stimulant. Use as a prophylactic to protect horses from infections. Blood cleanser and a glandular and lymphatic system cleanser. Useful for urinary infections. Ideal for skin complaints and wound healing. Its anti-viral, anti-bacterial and anti-biotic properties stimulate quick tissue repair. Externally can be used as a poultice/compress.
Actions: anti-inflammatory, anti-catarrhal, astringent
The whole plant is anti-inflammatory, astringent, digestive, ophthalmic and slightly tonic. It is taken internally in the treatment of catarrh (especially nasal), sinusitis, hay fever,weeping eyes, conjunctivitis and upper respiratory tract infections.
Actions: Antiseptic, Antispasmodic, Aromatic, Carminative, Diuretic, Expectorant, Galactogogue, Hepatic, Mucilage, Rubefacient, Stimulant, Stomachic, Tonic.
Fennel is traditionally used for coughs, appetite, constipation, diarrhea and stimulates milk flow in nursing mares. Being a mild diuretic, this herb is also good for urinary disorders.
The seeds are very nourishing and are given to convalescents or ‘poor doers’ to encourage weight gain and maintain condition. The seed yields a strong mucilage and is therefore useful in the treatment of inflammation and ulcers of the stomach and gastric disorders. The seed and leaves are , anti-inflammatory, antitumor, carminative, demulcent, , emollient, expectorant, febrifuge, galactogogue, hypoglycaemic, , parasiticide, restorative and uterine tonic. It is also used in the treatment of late-onset diabetes, and poor digestion. Increases milk production.The seeds are made up of 8% oil and 20% protein. Contains vitanims A, B, C and the fertility vitamin E. (avoid using fenugreek on mares that have hormonal imbalances)
Actions: antibiotic, antimicrobial, anthelminthic, expectorant, antiseptic, anthelmintic, expectoranr, daiphoretic, hypotensive, anti-diabetic
Daily use of garlic in the diet has been shown to have a very beneficial effect on the body, especially the blood system and the heart. Garlic is a powerful blood purifier. Use for respiratory disorders especially to aid in the expulsion of mucous. Supports the natural bacterial flora in the digestive system. Garlic is rich in sulphur which is excreted through the pores of the skin helping to deter flies and other insects. Used in a prophylactic way it will help guard your horse from coughs, colds and worm infestation.
Ginger has been used to aid digestion and treat stomach upset, diarrhea, and nausea for more than 2,000 years. Since ancient times, ginger has also been used to help treat arthritis, colic, diarrhea, and heart conditions. .One of ginger’s most valuable effects is its ability to reduce inflammation by neutralizing free radicals which contribute to inflammation. In fact, many herbalists today use ginger to help treat health problems associated with inflammation, such as arthritis, bronchitis, and ulcerative colitis.Use for colds, nasal congestion and sinusitis.
Actions: Adaptogen, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, tonic, vasodilator
Siberian ginseng is a powerful tonic herb with an impressive range of health benefits. A powerful herb aiding the body when under PHYSICAL STRESS, EXHAUSTION and FATIGUE. As well as those who have become very run down due to VIRAL infections such as FLU. It is a real pick you up boosting up one’s energy and resistance to disease. It works by strengthening the bodies natural immune system. The root and the root bark are adaptogen, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic, tonic and vasodilator.
Demonstrated to be effective in maintaining healthy joints and easing arthritic conditions. It plays an important role in the production, maintenance, and repair of cartilage. It also helps form ligaments, tendons.
Actions: Cardiac tonic, vasodilatory, hypotensive
Will strengthen the blood capillaries so improving CIRCULATION. One of the best herbs for HEART and circulation problems and especially ARTHRITIS, RHEUMATISM, NAVICULAR and LAMINITIS.
Actions: Analgesic, Antiseptic, Antispasmodic, Anodyne, Astringent, Bitter, Diuretic, Febrifuge, Hypnotic, Nervine, Sedative, Stimulant, Stomachic, Tonic, Vermifuge.
Hops are most commonly used for their calming effect on the nervous system. It will ease tension and anxiety, and may be used where this tension leads to restlessness. Also used for nervous diarrhea, to stimulate appetite and aid digestion Acts as an antiseptic and anti-inflammatory for infections of the upper digestive tract.
Actions: Alterative, Antibiotic, Antihypothyroid, Antirheumatic, Demulcent, Diuretic, Emmolient, Mucilage, Sedative, Stimulant, Tonic.
Helps to stimulate an under-active thyroid gland. It is good for coat and hoof conditions and an aid to arthritic and rheumatic conditions. Kelp or seaweed, is an original source of iodine. It is also rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium, selenium and many other vitamins.
Properties: Research shows very high levels of Omega 3 essential fatty acid common to that most often found in fish oils. Laxative, aids blood circulation, soothes skin. Useful for promoting glossy coat, total health, and presentation.
Actions: Expectorant, demulcent, anti- inflammatory, laxative, antitusive, antibacterial, antiviral
Provides anti-inflammatory and immunostimulant actions, helping to relieve pain, itching and inflammation. Useful for respiratory disorders and gastric ulceration.
Actions: Demulcent, emollient and expectorant
Helpful for urinary tract inflammation and digestive upsets such as gastric ulceration and inflammation. Useful for coughs due to its soothing effect on the mucus membranes by lubricating. Encourages mucus expulsion.
Actions: Stomachic, astringent, antirheumatic, antacid
The herbal aspirin, meadowsweet contains salicylic acid which gives it the anti inflammatory action on rheumatic pain. Aids natural flexibility and comfort for joints and muscles.One of the best herbs for gastric ulcers and digestive disorders and scouring.
Actions: Hepatoprotective, demulcent
Milk Thistle has been traditionally used to support, maintain and protect the liver functions. Improves liver function and speeds up regeneration of liver cells. Can be used where liver damage is due to excess worm burden. Use in the spring as a tonic.
Actions: Astringent, antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, mild bitter Mints have a strong influence on the digestive tract. Helps soothe and relax digestive tract. The oil is useful for colic and flatulence.Topically it can be used to cool itchy skin and skin irritations, reduce joint swelling. Essential oil inhalations are useful for lung and nasal congestion.
Actions: Demulcent, emolient, expectorant, vulnerary
Excellent medicinal for the treatment of many types of colds, coughs, bronchitis. Soothes irritated mucous membranes in the throat and lungs, loosens tight coughs and congestion, relaxes the muscles of the chest, opening the airways and making breathing easier. Useful for treating swellings of the glands, muscles and ligaments.
Properties: Repels midges and lice and cleans open wounds.
Useful for midges, ticks and lice infestation, and wound healing
Nettles are rich in iron and Vitamin C. They are valued by herbalists for their astringent action and their ability to support the circulation making them idea for laminitis and arthritis. Ideal as a spring tonic, blood cleanser and conditioner. Encourages the dapples in animal’s coats.
Actions: Nervine tonic, anti-depressant, nutritive, demulcent, vulnerary
Oats is one of the best remedies for “feeding’ the nervous system, especially when under stress. It is considered a specific incases of nervous debility and exhaustion
Actions: diuretic, carminative, expectorant, digestive
Rich in vitamin C, iron, copper. Strong diuretic. Encourages milk production. Specific for urinary complaints.
Not for pregnant mares
Actions: analgesic, antispasmodic, nervine, sedative
Passion flower is one of nature’s best tranquilizers. This herb will relieve muscle tension, extreme anxiety and nervousness including gastrointestinal complaints of a nervous origin.
Actions: Alterative, antispasmodic, expectorant, oestrogenic
Red Clover has a healing action on the skin and its supportive action on the body’s immune system and eliminatory system make it useful in skin irritations and infections. Beneficial when the horse is weak and rundown or has suffered a chronic illness and needs to regain strength.
Actions: Astringent, Uterine tonic
This herb has been used traditionally for mares (and humans) to help strenghten and tone the uterine muscles. Assists with contractions during the foaling. Raspberry can also have reasonable success in preventing miscarriage and hemorrhage. Aids in promoting an easy labor. Given for one week after foaling it will encourage cleansing and toning of the uterus. Reputed to help with joint health over a long term.
Actions: aperiant, astringent
Rosehips Granules are one of the very best sources of natural Iron and Vitamin C. They also contain biotin for optimum hoof health. They are an excellent spring tonic. Useful for scouring, general debility and for helping horses return to health after illness. Will aid in fighting infection.
Actions: Antimicrobial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, Has a special affinity for the mouth, and throat. Use for mouth ulcers. Effective for digestive function and will settle upset stomachs , reduce bloating and increase digestive function. Reduces fever. Helps to reduce milk flow in nursing mares during weaning. Topically as a wash use this herb on fungal infections, skin infections and cuts.
Actions: Anti-inflammatory, demulcent, emollient, nutrient, vulnerary Due to its mucilage content this herb can be used as a food and a medicine. Effective for scouring, colitis and ulceration. Soothes the digestive tract. Slippery Elm bark helps regulate bacteria in the intestine.
Externally it is an excellent poultice because of its drawing properties.
ST JOHNS WORT
Actions: Antiviral, astringent, analgesic, antiseptic, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, sedative
Externally the oil is helpful in treating nerve pain, bruising and burns. Internally the plant has been used in conditions of the nervous system such as nervousness and excitability. Use as an antiviral for chronic conditions.
Note: this herb may cause photosentivity.
Actions: antiseptic, antiviral, anti-bacterial, urinary antiseptic, astringent, expectorant
Use for respiratory infections and coughs. Breaks up congestion, relaxes the respiratory tract and aids in expelling catarrh.Acts as a urinary antiseptic. Has a calming effect on the stomach, aiding digestion, relieves gas and bloating.
Actions: Urinary antiseptic, diuretic, astringent
Particularly useful for urinary tract infections such as cystitis. Use for stallions and geldings whose sheaths become difficult to clean, become infected or produce an over production of smegma.
Actions: nervine, sedative, antispasmodic, laxative, carminative
Valerian has a particularly pungent which our cats love. Use to relax and calm horses without affecting performance. Excellent to help relieve nervousness, stress and anxiety. Use for stomach cramping, flatulence, colic and bronchial spasms. Externally the oil is used as a rub for muscle tension and cramps.
Actions: Nervine, tonic, sedative, antispasmodic, hepatic
As a herbal remedy vervain is a tonic for the nervous system, used to calm the nerves and remove tension. It is a digestive tonic helping to improve digestion due to its bitter taste. Helps to increase breast milk production and acts as a liver tonic.
Actions: Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, astringent.
There are several kinds of willows used medicinally for their pain releiving action. The bark contains a substance which the body turns into salicyclic acid. The effects of willow bark are the same as aspirin but to a lesser degree. Thus willow, often called “natures aspirin” can be used to treat fevers and all types of body pain. Long used medicine for arthritic pain and inflammation.
Actions: Astringent, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, haemostatic, diuretic, peripheral vasodialtor
Externally use to staunch wounds. Beneficial for urinary infections, fever, and burst blood vessels such as those that occur in epitaxis. Supports blood supply and circulation to peripheral blood vessels so is ideal for navicular syndrome treatment. May help to rebuild damaged nerves.
Not recommended for pregnant mares
Actions: alterative, depurative, laxative, purgative, cholagogue, and astringent. Yellow Dock is a powerful blood purifier and astringent. It is used in treating all diseases of the blood and skin. It is very high in iron, making it useful for treating anemia. It nourishes the liver, detoxifies the liver, and cleanses and enriches the blood.
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